The kingdom of Nepal is a small independent kingdom in central Asia, on the southern skirts of the Great Himalayan Mountain Chillies, surrounded by China in the north, India in the south, and Torture in the east.
According to the year 2015, the population of Nepal is 28,513,700. The population of Nepal, which was 10,056,945 in 1960, was 11,986,974 in 1970, 14,890,080 in 1980 and 18,741,688 in 1990. Nepal’s population for 2000 was 18,741,688.
According to investigations, Nepal’s first known history is M.S. In the 4th century, it started with the establishment of small Indian principals. Many of these small principals, located on the Nepal lands, continued their lives until the mid-18th century. For the first time in 1769, the Gurkas, one of these principals, took control of the Nepalese lands.
Pritvi Narayan, the first G├╝rka shah, took over the Kathmandu territory and then the Gurkanese gold monument in Nepal. The children who replace Narayan are extended to Nepal lands, to the Sutley River in the west, to the Ganges Plain in the south and to Tibet in the north.
Between 1814 and 1816, the British fought against the Germans. From then on until 1846, the country became a struggle area for noble families. On this date, the Rana family dominated the others. Nepal remained in control of this family until 1951. In the same year, King Tribhubana Bir Bihram, who is a member of the Shah family, took over the country’s administration and switched to a cabinet government system. The Constitution declared a monarchy.
After his death, his son Mahendra made major changes in the country. In 1962 a new constitution was announced. In 1972, instead of Mohandra’s death, his son, a Bihram Shah Giant, became king. The country remained in internal events, protests and conflicts until 1980. On May 2, 1980, the referendum was adopted as a form of non-partisan management. In 1990, King Birendra, a Bihram Shah Deva, went to policy changes and loosened the monopoly of power. On 19th April, for the first time in thirty years, an independent government was established with the introduction of Krishna Prasat Bhattanai to the Prime Minister.
Elections were held in April 1991 after the transition to the multi-party system. The first democratic government, which was set up 32 years after the elections, started in May 1991.
The 147.181 km2 of Nepal, which is located just south of the Great Himalayan Mountains, between 25 ┬░ 25′-30 ┬░ 17 ‘North latitudes and 80 ┬░ 6′-88 ┬░ 14’ East longitudes, is roughly a rectangle. Nepal is divided into three major regions: the Tarai, the Middle Tarai and the Mountainous Region.
Tarai region is located in the south of the country and at the foot of the Sival─▒k Mountain Chain. It is an extension of the Ganges Oval. It is located between Middle Tarai Sival─▒k and Mahabharat Lekh Mountain Silsilies. The most important feature of this region is; Marshes, hills and valleys are abundant. The Mountainous Region, which constitutes 65% of the country, is between Mahabharat Lekh and the Himalayas.
The Great Himalayan Mountains, along the northern border of Nepal, have a height above 7600 metric units, with 23 peaks covering the country against the north. The most important of these peaks is the Everest Tepes, which is the world’s highest point with 8,848 m. In addition, Lhotse, Makdu, Cho Oyu, Manasulu, Annapurna and Dhaulagiri are other important summits.
There are three major river systems that cut the mountain range of the country from east to west, from north to south. Kamali, Sapt Gandaki and Sapt Kasi. The rivers, all of which originated in Tibet, are very important for Nepal’s economic and strategic interests.
Nepal climate changes depending on height. The climate is getting stiffer as you go up to the heights. In the vicinity of Katmandu, summers are hot and winters are cold and hard. The summer months are also quite hot in Tarai and the mountainous regions in the center.
The eastern and western sides of the country are exposed to monsoon winds, especially during the summer months. The amount of annual rainfall is about 2500-3800 mm in the Tarai district, while in the Western hill region this figure drops to 1200-1900 millimeters. In Tarai, the hottest region of the country, there are also abnormal temperatures that can rise to 54 ┬░ C.
The Tarai region, which brings the south of the country to the center, is rich in large oval and agricultural landscapes and has a lush vegetation cover. At the same time, there are plenty of elephants, tigers, raptors and rhinos in places where marshes are common in the region. Three major rivers arising from Tibet and dividing the country into three regions by cutting the country’s mountains from north to south are the most important natural resources. The eastern and western parts of these three regions have watery ovals and green vegetation.
Population and Social Life
A large part of the ethnic structure of Nepal is brought to the people by the Mongols and the Indo-European group. The fact that it is located between Tibet and India has caused the migration from these regions to end up in Nepal.
Due to the existing tribe and caste system, people are in small communities. These small divisions are very important in Nepal’s social and political life. The most effective group is Brehmen of Indian origin. About 40% of the population of about 19.795.000 is Indian. The second largest community is the Newars, known as the oldest inhabitants of Nepal. Tibetan and Mongolian origin,
Magar, Grung and Serpa tribes can also be considered as the third largest ethnic group.
Nepalese language problem is not only due to the fact that there are a lot of languages, but it is more complicated when these languages ÔÇőÔÇőcome from separate language families. Nepalese, the official language, comes from the Indo-European language family, the Indian-Iranian arm. More than half of the people speak this language. The literacy rate is 50%. The level of education is very low. A large part of the population is Hindu. Nearly 5% of the total population is Buddhist. The number of Muslims is around 500,000.
Nepal has the power of a Hindu monarchy where all the power is gathered in the king. Between 1846 and 1951, this power was given to the prime minister, who was in the hands of the Rana family. In the general elections of 1959, the Nepal Congress Party won the election with great advantage and established the government. Nepal has a constitutional monarchy. The king is the president of both the state and the government. According to the 1962 Constitution, the executive power is in the King and the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers and the Prime Minister are elected from the National Panchayat (Parliament). Panchayat is a member of the 125 members who are both elected and appointed. There are no political parties, the law making power belongs to the meclise. After the elections in 1959, the government presidency was given to the prime minister.
After 1991, the multi-party system was passed. Nepal is a member of the United Nations, which is divided into 14 provinces and 75 provinces.
Approximately 90% of the population is engaged in agriculture. 30% of the total land is arable. The most important products are; Rice, corn, millet, wheat, sugarcane, tobacco, jute, fruit and vegetables. Farming and forestry are two other important areas that the public is striving for. The present large-scale forests and steeps in the country are important economic resources.
Nepal, other than rich mica ore, produces copper, cobalt, lignite, iron and quartz. However, due to the poor accessibility of the country, these mines and rivers can not be fully exploited.
The currency of Nepal is Rupee. The country trades more with India, Japan and Germany. The national income per capita is around 170 dollars.
Tourism is a huge source of income for Nepal. In addition, metalworking and woodworking are important. The country’s industry has developed in glassware, paper, chemicals, cement and pottery.
Transportation in the country is provided by land, iron and air. The length of the highways is 7007 km. The length of the railways is 53 km, very few.