Ephesus is a historic Greek city located on the western coast of Turkey and dating from the Roman period of İzmir to the Selçuk district.
It is one of the 12 cities of Ionia in the classical Greek era. Foundation Polished Stone Age BC It’s 6000 years old. Ephesus was the capital of the Asian state during the Roman Empire.
Because of its position, it was also one of the important port cities that had been serving as a bridge between west and east at that time. It is very important for us to be home because Ephesus, the temple of Artemis, is also home to us, besides the commercial and political importance that we have in the past.
Ephesus, which is a place where science, art and culture are famous in many fields, was adopted as a pilgrimage site by Christians today because it is also the first place where Christianity spreads.Since Ephesus has been displaced many times throughout its history, its remains extend over a wide area of approximately 8 kilometers. Ayasuluk Tepesi, Artemision, Ephesus and Selçuk are visited by an average of 1.5 million tourists per year. The main structures and works in Ephesus, the first city made entirely of marble, are as follows:
Temple of Artemis: Temple of Artemis, one of the seven wonders of the world, is the first marble-built temple of the ancient world, and its foundations date back to the 7th century BC. Built by the Lydian king Croesus, dedicated to the goddess Artemis, the building was adorned with various bronze sculptures designed by a Greek architect and made by the greatest sculptors of the time. Its size is 130 x 68 meters and ten pillars turn west like the other Temples of Artemis.
The temple was used both as a marketplace and as a religious institution. Artemis Temple BC He was burned by a Greek named Herostratus who wanted to immortalize his name in 356. The same night Alexander the Great was born. When Alexander the Great conquered Anatolia, he offered to help rebuild the Temple of Artemis, but he was rejected. There are only a few marble blocks left from the temples.
Celsus Library: One of the most beautiful buildings of the Roman period, the building has served both as a library and as a tomb monument. When Celsus, the governor of Ephesus, died in 106, his son built the library as a tomb monument in the name of his father. Celsus’s sarcophagus is under the western wall of the library. The Front was restored between 1970-1980. Book rolls in the library were hiding in the niches on the walls.
Ephesus Antique Theater: The Great Theater of Ephesus Antique Theater, located on the western slope of Panayırdağ, faces west towards the harbor. Thus the greatest structure of the city can be seen from a distance by the sight of the ship. In the Hellenistic period, the natural rock structure of the slope was constructed as an infrastructure. The Ephesus Antique Theater, built in the Hellenistic period with a seating capacity of 24,000, is one of the most dazzling parts of the Ephesus ruins. The theater is also the best protected area of Ephesus ruins and the largest area with a diameter of 150 meters. During the Roman Empire many gladiatorial battles took place in this theater. The building also served countless meetings outside the theater displays and gladiatorial fights. During the Byzantine period, a part of the stage building was added to the city walls and lost its function when it began to be used as a watch tower.
Mother Mary’s House: Hz. The last years of Mary’s mother Mary He believed that he was with John. It is a place of pilgrimage for Christians and visited by some popes. It is believed that Mary’s grave was in Bülbüldağı but the grave of Mary is in Silifke, Mersin, as mentioned in the Bible.
Seven Sleeping Cave (Ashab-i Kehf): This place, which was converted into a grave church in the Byzantine period, is a cave where the seven Christian generals who escape from the oppression of the pagans have sheltered on the foothills of Mount Panayir. Though there are 33 cities in the world claiming that the cave is within its borders, according to the majority of Christian sources, the city is Ephesus, which is considered holy by Christians. The most known and visited cave in Turkey is the important center of the period and St. Catherine’s Cave. It is in Tarsus, the birthplace of Paul. The tombs belonging to the 5th and 6th centuries were found in Ephesus as a result of an excavation carried out between 1927-1928. The inscriptions dedicated to the Seven Sleepers are found both in the graves and on the church walls.