Istanbul’s Districts: There are 28 districts in the province of Istanbul. They are in the West; Hunters, Küçükçekmece, Bakırköy, Bahçelievler, Bağcılar, Güngören, Maltepe, Bayrampaşa, Zeytinburnu, Fatih, Fatih, Beyoğlu, Beşiktaş, Şişli, Eyup, Sarıyer, Eyup, Eyup. In the east; Üsküdar, Beykoz, Kadıköy, Kartal, Pendik, Tuzla, Ümraniye, Istanbul’s Maltepe is located in Sultanbeyli. Independent municipalities Buyukcekmece, Catalca, Silivri and Sile is.
Geography: Istanbul 41 ° F, is located at 29 ° E coordinates. Istanbul provincial territory covers an area of 5,512 km2 in total.
Istanbul, serves as a bridge between Asia and Europe, where they established very close to each other on the two ends of a city. The ends of the fork on the European continent, while in Asia Kocaeli; Marmara and Bursa, from southwest to northwest and is surrounded by Kırklareli and Tekirdağ. The city received the name of the actual Istanbul and the Golden Horn with 253 square kilometers on the peninsula between the Marmara and the whole is 5712 km². Islands in the Marmara Sea is also included in İstanbul.
Istanbul environment of vegetation, reminiscent of the Mediterranean climate. The most common plant species in the area is scrub. These plants adapt itself to a long, dry summer season. But because of the hills climate feature is not bare. 20 km of the city’s most important forest areas in common. north of Belgrade Forest.
Istanbul has no major rivers in the province. The largest rivers, at the same time of Kocaeli Peninsula is also the largest tea River water. 71 km. the River Tea, is the source of Kocaeli province and southeast-northwest direction flows in the Black Sea near the village of Riva ‘E is poured.
The most important Strait waters spilled Küçüksu and are Göksu. They spilled from other Kağıthane and Alibey Streams Horn, Küçükçekmece Lake spilled Sazlıdere, Büyükçekmece Lake and empties into the Karasu River, Lake Terkos Goldeneye pouring stream, are the main rivers of the province of Istanbul. There is a small but important three lakes in the province. These three are the European side. Terkos lake separated from the sea water, which is sweet. The city water is provided here. The Marmara Sea coast in Küçükçekmece (11 square kilometers) and Büyükçekmece (16 sq km) waters of the lake is salty because they are in contact with the sea.
Climate: The summers are usually hot last, depending on the systems under the influence of winter cold in passing Istanbul, Mediterranean Although it has the characteristics of the climate, has different characteristics due to the Marmara Sea and the Bosphorus. In winter the Black Sea to the Balkans and the cold from the cold-dry air mass of wet air masses-especially the Mediterranean ‘is also coming under the influence of warm and wet air masses of southerners. All provinces in the Black Sea coldly rainy (northeast wind) weather with warm Mediterranean (lodosl a) air consecutively. In the province in summer and winter, there is not big temperature difference between day and night.
History: Istanbul, Ottoman 3. It is the capital. Although earlier finds were not detected in the history of the city; In the city of the Golden Horn and discovered in excavations conducted in the Asian part of the findings of the first settlements in the region BC 3 shows that based on the millennium. The town was known as Byzantium was located in the area of the Acropolis today’s Topkapi Palace.
Halic has a calm port that is still in use today. Surrounded by a strong starting from here in the Sea of Marmara ‘What was reached. Byzantium, continues its life in the city during the Roman Empire as a port and trade, M.S. It began in the year 191 and is one to two years after a siege in excess of the ground conquered by the Roman emperor Septimus Severius. expanded city built from scratch by the same emperor and later re-equipped.
A.D. 4. century Roman Empire expanded too much, because of its strategic location in Istanbul by the Emperor Constantine of Rome, it has been chosen as the new capital instead. The city was reorganized in over 6 years, the walls are extended, many temples, official buildings, palaces, hamams and hippodrome was built. 330 years in the city made with great ceremony is officially announced as the capital of the Roman Empire. It said city and close to the age of the start of the second period, Rome and New Rome names, then “Byzantium” and was named Constantinople in the late eras. People throughout history in the name of the city, “Police” has come to be known.
The city of the emperors Constantine the Great is seen to continue the beautification efforts. The first church in the city was built after Constantine. 5 of the Western Roman Empire. Due to the slump in the century long period, the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) was the capital. The city was rebuilt in the Byzantine period was extended again by walls.
The current 6492 m. Emperor With magnificent city walls in length. Theodosius. 6. Century urban population exceeded half a million, and was considered a golden era of Emperor Justinian administration. famous Hagia Sophia, which today is the work of the Emperor. Capital of the Byzantine Empire and Istanbul’s next historic palace and church intrigues, is filled with bloody fights in Iran and Arab attacks and frequently changing emperor families.
a land transfer within Latin domination in the years 726-842, 4. The Crusades began with the invasion of the city in 1204, all the churches and monuments of the city years until the monasteries were plundered for years. 1261 Byzantium again in the hands of the city administration has not regained its former prosperity. The city in 1453 after a 53-day siege by the Turks hands.
Conqueror balls of large size used for the first time in the history of the war is a cause of exceeding Istanbul Mehmet walls. Moved here in the capital of the Ottoman Empire, the country’s increased immigrant population brought from various parts of the city, has begun to empty and devastated the city’s reconstruction efforts.
the former residents of the city and freedom of religion by recognizing social rights are ensured their survival. The head of the Conqueror to the rights due to the Christian Orthodox Church Patriarchate remained in place until today. After the conquest of the century have marked the city of Turkish art, domes and minarets dominate the city skyline olmuştur.16. From the century, due to being the Caliph of the Ottoman Sultans in Istanbul it has been the center of the entire Islamic world.
the city has been completely reconstruction in the administration of the Sultan, wrapped in a charming atmosphere. These Istanbul color pages in the history of the revolution, which destroyed large areas, fires are frequent. Former acropolis Sultan Palace, the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn is dominant in the unique landscape. 19. From century after frequent contacts with the Western world, mosques and palaces, European-style architecture, was started to be built on the shores of the Bosphorus. built in a short time period, are also symbols of the many palaces collapse. Istanbul, the end of another world empire, he has witnessed the end of World War II.
Empire divided, while fighting for their share of internal and external enemies, a noble commander of the Turkish army had entered the fight for the Turkish nation. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was considered a hero, founded the Republic of Turkey after the War of Independence in 1923, exceeding 4 years. The capital Ankara in the transport did not change the importance of Istanbul. This unique city still lives with it’s fascinating view.
What to Eat: Istanbul cuisine, the world’s leading kitchen. Imperial capital of the materials from all over the country to the city, masters, styles, and flavors has led to the emergence of the Ottoman Turkish kitchen. Empire is a continuation of the kitchen and open to new flavors of Ottoman cuisine is enriched every day.
Istanbul cuisine, lamb, various vegetables, mutton or veal are added to the main dishes. Rice, pastry varieties, wheat, beans, rich olive oil and vegetables are served as side dishes. Meatballs and shish kebab, doner kebab or chilli, yoghurt, eggplant liked the special kebab is found in other kebab. Weigh the dough, baklava, sweet pastry and delicious, genuine, etc., it is sometimes obtained from small shops which continued for several generations.
There are restaurants of various nationalities in Istanbul. Fast food, providing quick snack service is available in numerous space. But it taste delicious local dishes in a typical restaurant. Raki and buttermilk, is the most famous two Turkish national drink. Both are milky. With raki spirits; whiten ply is a stiff drink of water. The other refreshing yogurt made from reconstituted; It is buttermilk. with melon and feta cheese or nuts as snacks raki, the time taken to eat a variety of appetizers, smoking along with other drinks. Wine and beer are the homeland of Anatolia.
The famous Turkish coffee is served at every opportunity, with or without sugar guests in small cups. “There is a cup of coffee 40 years of sake” which was introduced with the consistency of that coffee is known by the Turks 16. It is said since centuries.
What to buy: You can go just for the purpose of shopping in Istanbul. Covered Bazaar in the old part of town is the best place to start this work. Maze style in the streets and passages are more than 4,000 shops. Jewelers Street, Carpet street names, such as skullcap Street where, before, suggesting different trading arm operating in their own section. Here, still, the commercial center of the city, where shopping is an original and something to suit every taste sac.
Turkish crafts, the world-renowned carpets, brightly colored hand-painted ceramics, copper and brass mirrors, the meerschaum pipe is a very nice piece of memorabilia and souvenir. jewelry under the well-lit showcase dazzle the last. Best prices of leather and suede goods in quality is quite reasonable. The old bazaar in the middle of the mall ‘in rare antique pieces. Tens years worth wandering sightseeing rather stay where you might find a valuable piece.
Spice Bazaar at the side of the New Mosque in Eminonu Spice Market or take the person to the eastern mystical dream worlds. Cinnamon, cumin, saffron, mint, thyme and many other herbs and spices that can be emitted to the air seductive scent of the count. Blue in the old quarter of the city has also become a shopping pilgrimage to separate. 18th century Mehmet Efendi Madrasa in Istanbul Arts Market and near the 16th century Sinan made by artisans in the madrasah is possible to buy and trying to see what they did. Blue Mosque archway of the bazaar is to create a good looking and convenient shopping facilities.
Taksim – Nişantaşı – reflects the opposite of confusion in the market place exclusive shops in Sisli district. Istiklal, Rumeli Caddesi and the Republic of Turkey sells elegant models produced from high-quality textile shops are tastefully and comfortably visit. Exquisite jewelry, handbags and shoes are elegant model. The Ataköy Galeria in Ataköy and Akmerkez Etiler contain the offices of the most fashionable shops in Istanbul. The Asian side’s Baharia and Baghdad Street and Capitol Shopping Center offered similar goods.
Istanbul’s flea market in both new and old, can find amazing items. Antiquarian Bazaar in Beyazit and navigate the Çınaraltı encountered something new every day. On Sundays, the farms and the Grand Bazaar market between antiquarian goods are offered for sale on trolleys or mats. Horhor Bazaar is full of shops selling every age and quality furniture. The Topkapi district, Cihangir – Çukurcuma Street and Üsküdar – Large Bath Street in Kadikoy – Market Station Located near the flea market and between Eminönü and Tahtakale are open every day. When a Sunday drive to get to the Bosphorus up another lively market place between Buyukdere and Sariyer shall stop