The only one of the seven wonders of the world who managed to survive without being damaged day by day is the Pyramid of Keops from the Gize pyramids in Egypt.
The pyramid-shaped structures are not only specific to Egypt, but also have examples built elsewhere in the world. However, they are also known as the “Egyptian Pyramids” because they are mostly identified with the region because of their presence in Egypt.
Important Pyramids in the World:
- Keops Pyramid (145.75 meters)
- Mikerinos Pyramid (66.5 meters)
- The Kefren Pyramid (143,56 meters)
- The Saqqara Pyramid (63.17 meters)
- Maldum Snefru Piramidi (93,26 m)
- Dahahur Bent Piramidi (104,85 m)
- Dahahur Snefru P. (103.95 meters)
- Sakkara Pepi II P. (52,555 meters)
- Temple of Uxmal (Mexico)
- Teotehuacan (Mexico)
- Tiahuanaco (Bolivia)
- Dohan Temple (People’s Republic of China)
What is the pyramid?
The base is a square shape, a geometric shape formed by the joining of the corners to a single point on the hill. The pyramids, which have four equally large triangular surfaces, are extremely robust in terms of engineering when they are built.
The History of the Pyramids
It is thought that the pyramids were built to hide the pharaoh’s mummy and its precious treasures and unique artworks of the period. But until now, no mummies or treasures have ever been found in any of them. The world’s first built pyramid was built in Saqqara and was completed in 2620 BC. Many of the pyramids whose first examples are of the stepped structure were not completed or were demolished during the construction phase. The first example of this is the Meidum pyramid, which began to be built in 2570 BC, and was destroyed when it was desired to build an eighth step.
The builders of the pyramids thought it necessary to use a rhombus geometry, keeping the floor as wide as possible to draw higher pyramids. The Bent pyramid, which was built in 2570 BC in the Dahahur region near the Nile River, has been reduced to the slope angle based on previous experience after the two-thirds division has been completed. With this method, the Bent pyramid, which was completed successfully in 2565 BC, had a much more rigid structure and also had a unique appearance. All pyramids built after this date were built with a smaller fixed angle.
Who built the pyramids?
In 1990, when a pyramid was thought to have been built by Egyptian slaves, a tourist trapped a drop in a pit, and this pit opened a mysterious mahogany. This is the grave of someone who is the foremost of the workers who work in pyramid construction. Also known as the domed grave, the space has a magnificent structure with embroidered walls. The making of such a beautiful tomb in the working class was a sign that the employees were not prisoners. The workers were working day and night was going to their villages in the villages. Later more than 250 different graves were found in excavations in this area. The tombs around the foreman were in the graves of elite workers, while the regular workers were in the collective a little further away.
Hieroglyphic writings showing the statues of workers at the entrance to the tombs were found in the excavations in the area, which apparently constituted a grave for everyone who died. These writings were phrases like “grave construction supervisor”, “grave construction manager”. In addition, miniature sculptures and works of art were included in these graves.
When the skeletons in the region where about 200,000 workers are working are examined, it turns out that the spine has been subjected to an incredible load. The overburden on the vertebrae indicates the strength of the stone transport there. Thousands of workers lived in the cities of this region for the construction of the pyramids that appeared with so much self-sacrifice and labor. It was also possible to get an idea about the city life of the period since many excavations, such as houses, ovens, pottery, were depicted in the excavations, as the hieroglyphs on the walls depicted details such as bread making and beverage preparation.
More than 15 million limestones were used in the pyramids of Gize. These stones were removed from a stone oven at a distance of 300 meters from the pyramids and were again cut and processed to make them ready. Excavations continued to excavate the corrugated platforms required to cut stones in this area, and a giant stone oven’s debris was unearthed. The amount of stone extracted from the stone oven was coinciding with the amount used in the pyramids. In addition, the stone ramps used in the construction of the pyramids were plastered with a clay of clay and limestone. While this method is very durable and hard, it can be easily broken by a small chisel impact. When the stone quarry was found, it was filled with the ramp of the ramp.
In 1954, there was a dome on the south end of the Pyramid of Keops, and when it was examined, it was understood that a ship was lying here. This ship was the ship of Egyptian Pharaoh Keops, and as a product of 13 years of intense work, all the pieces were combined and exhibited in the museum. The museum, which is visited by 300.000 people a year, is proudly displayed as the oldest ship in the world, made entirely of cedar trees. Later on, there was another sister ship similar to the other pharaohs but it was not removed from the room where the ship was not damaged and lost its historical value.
The pharaohs’ candles were found in a hidden cemetery in a cave. Thanks to the mummification technique of that time, even after thousands of years, there were still some 40 mummies left in recognizable faces. How the mummification is done is understood from the hieroglyphs drawn on the walls in this graveyard. It was shown that all the organs were removed from the tiny cut just enough to allow a hand to enter the abdominal region and filled with special spices and oils. At that time he thought that he would be resurrected after he died, and he kept all his money for the mummification. Because after they became angry they would need their bodies. For this reason, a person is said to be so well protected after he is killed. While the very expensive mummification was only done to the important people and riches, poor people were buried in mass graves.
How was the pyramids built?
The most important pyramids built are the Gize Pyramids and consist of three pyramids named Mikerinos, Kefren and Keops. The largest and most mysterious of these pyramids in the Gize Platosu is the Pyramid of Keops.
The Pyramid of Keops has been built in 20 years using 2.300.000 pieces of limestone each weighing 2.5 tons, lifted up to 150 meters in height. The total weight of these stones, 5.5 million tons, needs to be replaced every two and a half minutes so that they can be sorted during this period. That is why one of the most incomprehensible aspects of this pyramid today is how it was built.
The building, which has an impressive proportion, has left its mystery to the silence of the stones. The pyramid could not be united properly at the top if the susceptibility of these stones, which stood at 51 to 51 ’14’ Today, such faults are seen as a reasonable tolerance even in the most exquisite structures. But the pyramids, built 4500 years ago, have been united perfectly.
How can millions of stones be lifted in excess of 140 meters? For this, large ramps made of stone blocks were used. This ramp was built in a structure starting from the stone quarry located near the pyramid and continuing up to the pyramid and carrying regular stone uninterruptedly. Otherwise, it would never be possible to complete the work within the time period that was never realized. But this ramp reaches a height of 43 meters after 65% of the pyramid volume has been completed and it is a matter of debate about how effective it is after this point. Because it would have to reach 140 meters from 43 meters to make the entire pyramid through this ramp, it would require twice as much stone as the pyramid’s total volume. For this reason, after this level pyramid was built from the inside.
The pyramid is built in two stages. One is the construction of the pyramid and the other is the construction of the king chamber. The king room is located 43 meters above the pyramid floor, and it is admirable for the presence of air-venting openings and the use of flat blocks over 60 tonnes on the ceiling. How these stone blocks, which are 15 tons in size, are carried is hidden on the broad road to the king’s room (the big gallery). There was a system operating with a counterweight mechanism, and the blocks were easily lifted to the desired height thanks to this scale mechanism, which was combined with the ropes.
After the stones were lifted to the desired height, they were pulled into the tunnel on the sides of the pyramid by groups of 10 people to be taken to where they had to be put. If a corner is turned, the pyramid is removed by a scales system as shown in the picture at the open tunnel ends, and the direction is given and the ramay is set to go to the other direction. Later on in this tunnel, he was taken by the group of 10 people until the required time. Sludge and water were used to reduce the friction force generated when the stones were taken.
The pyramid surface was not a stepped structure as it is now. The pyramid of Keops has been eroded about 10 meters from the top during the 45-year-old survival period. The triangular steps of the surface were filled with a special limestone mud and filled with a smooth, glossy appearance. Especially in the last 20 years, the pyramids have suffered more damage than the 400 we passed. Factors such as sunlight and climatic conditions threaten the existence of pyramids more and more every day.
What is the secret of the pyramids?
John Taylor, an English mathematician and astronomer, has done some research and his results have been analyzed by Howard Vyse. Some of those;
– If the floor area of the keops pyramid is thought of as the cross-sectional area where we split the earth from the horizon, and the pyramid base sits on the radius of the earth, the height corresponds to the exact pole point. So there is a perfect rate here.
When the base circumference of cheep pyramidine is divided by two times the height, exactly pi = 3,1416 is obtained.
– The pyramids of Keops and Kefren are so perfectly placed on the east-west and north-south borders that it is considered astonishing when the conditions of the day are considered.
– The total area of the triangular four faces of the pyramid of Keops is equal to the height of the pyramid.
– The multiplication of the height of the pyramid of Keops by 1 billion gives exactly the distance between the world and the sun (149.504.000km).
– Pyramids function as a sundial. the shadows of the pyramids in mid-October and at the beginning of March indicate the length of the shadows, seasons and year.
– The distance between the center of the earth and the pyramid of Keops equals the distance between the North pole.
Some of the narratives that have not been scientifically proved are;
– The meridian over the pyramids divides the blacks and the sea into two equal parts.
– Whichever Pyramid was built, the sun entered the king’s room only twice a year. These are the days when the king was born and died.
– There are no radar devices in the pyramids.
– A dirty water left in the pyramid is being refined within a few days.
– The milk left in the pyramid can remain unspoiled for a few days, and if it continues unexpectedly, it becomes yoghurt.
– A plant placed in a pyramid grows faster than normal, even though it does not get any light.
– An open wound heals within the pyramid much more quickly.
– The pyramids are cool in summer and warm in winter.
– Longitude passing through the Gize Plateau divides the shadows into two equal parts by sea.
From the pyramids of Gize, the Kefren is a giant dog sculpture built to protect the pyramid. The Sphinx, 70 meters long and 30 meters high, is the sculpture of Anubis with a jackal head. The sculpture built in 2520 BC meets the river Nile through the river during the course of history.
The Sphinx sculpture was greatly damaged by the Hiksos who occupied Egypt. Later on, the order of the kingdom of the king was changed, and the kingdom of Pharaoh (King of Egypt) was changed.